It is indisputable that the performing rights organizations (“PROs”) have played an important and procompetitive role in making the music industry what it is today. The benefits that PROs provide are mainly that they offer “unplanned, rapid, and indemnified” access to the songs in their catalogue. Nearly all music users, until recently, have been able to get immediate access to public performance licenses for the music they need simply by taking blanket licenses from the major PROs of the time.
The full work licensing question has never definitively been answered, but it has at the very least historically been assumed by the DOJ, Supreme Court, and music users that the PROs effectively offer full work licenses. The language the Supreme Court uses to describe the service provided by the PROs – “unplanned, rapid, and indemnified access” – implies full work licensing. However, the reason why there is still even room for debate is that it’s never really mattered. Most music users take licenses from the three major PROs (ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC) and pay these PROs based on fractional market shares. In exchange, these music users have never worried that they do not have the rights to play the songs in these PROs’ catalogues. The question only becomes relevant when music publishers wish to fragment music licensing and move rights out of the PROs.
For the purposes of this post, I will assume that – despite the findings of the DOJ – it is debatable whether the PROs have offered full work licenses to date. Even still, the historical assumption of a full work licensing environment has great implications for how the courts and the DOJ have treated the music industry under the antitrust laws.MORE »